Decoding Consciousness: Diving into the Easy and Hard Problems

Ali Khan
2 min readOct 24, 2023
Generated with Bing AI ∙ October 24, 2023

Consciousness has become a captivating and widely-discussed topic, particularly in light of the remarkable advancements in Artificial Intelligence. The question of whether AI can attain consciousness has sparked a multitude of opinions and ignited a profound debate. What was once regarded as implausible has now become a subject of serious consideration and exploration.

In the midst of this ongoing discourse, it is of paramount importance to delve into and comprehend two prominent problems of consciousness: the easy problem and the hard problem.

The Easy Problems of Consciousness

The easy problems of consciousness, although not inherently “easy” to solve, can be approached and tackled through the application of standard methods in neuroscience and cognitive science. These problems revolve around the various cognitive functions and behaviors that contribute to our conscious experience. They encompass intriguing questions such as:

  • How do we seamlessly integrate information from diverse sources to form a unified perception of the world? (Integration problem)
  • In what ways does consciousness influence and regulate our behavior? (Control of Behavior problem)
  • How do the distinct aspects of perception, such as color, smell, and shape, amalgamate to create a cohesive and unified experience? (Binding problem)

The Hard Problem of Consciousness

In contrast, the hard problem of consciousness delves into the profound “why” and “how” of conscious experience itself. It seeks to uncover the underlying reasons and mechanisms behind subjective experiences. This enigmatic problem grapples with profound questions such as: why do we possess subjective experiences? What is the essence of the subjective experience of perceiving the color red or experiencing pain? How does the intricate processing of information in the brain give rise to deeply personal and unique experiences? These questions present immense challenges due to the inherently subjective nature of consciousness, rendering it arduous to find definitive and objective answers.


In summary, the “easy” problems of consciousness focus on comprehending the intricate mechanisms and processes that underpin conscious experience. They provide insights into the interplay between cognitive functions, behaviors, and the formation of a unified perception of the world. On the other hand, the “hard” problem of consciousness delves into the fundamental nature and origins of subjective experiences, grappling with profound questions that are deeply intertwined with the subjective nature of consciousness itself.

As we continue to explore the frontiers of consciousness, these problems will undoubtedly play a pivotal role in shaping our understanding of the human mind and pave the way for transformative discoveries in the future.



Ali Khan

Techie. Infovore. Forever Curious. Building Things. Here to share a few of my deliberate perspectives.